Scholarly Publications

A comprehensive list of thousands of publications citing the Abecedarian Project is available through Google Scholar


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Below is a list of select publications from key researchers directly affiliated with the Abecedarian Project over the years.



Vernon-Feagans, L. (June 2022). Children’s Talk in Communities and Classrooms. University of North Carolina Press. Paperback ISBN: 978-1-4696-7206-9

Sparling, J., Ramey, S. L., & Ramey, C. T. (2021) Mental health and social development effects of the Abecedarian approach. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(13), 6997. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18136997

Martha J. Farah, Saul Sternberg, Thomas A. Nichols, Jeffrey T. Duda, Terry Lohrenz, Yi Luo, Libbie Sonnier, Sharon L. Ramey, Read Montague, Craig T. Ramey; Randomized Manipulation of Early Cognitive Experience Impacts Adult Brain Structure. J Cogn Neurosci 2021; 33 (6): 1197–1209. doi:

Sparling, J. & Meunier, K. (2019). Abecedarian: An early childhood education approach that has a rich history and a vibrant present. International Journal of Early Childhood, 1-10.

Stevens, H., Santos, R., Jonasson, S., Young, C., Mann, S., Sass, C., . . .Sparling, J. (2019). The Abecedarian Approach in a low-resource urban neighborhood in Canada: An impact evaluation in a child care setting. International Journal of Early Childhood.

Page, J., Cock, M. L., Murray, L., Eadie, T., Niklas, F., Scull, J., & Sparling, J. (2019). An Abecedarian Approach with aboriginal families and their young children in Australia: Playgroup participation and developmental outcomes. International Journal of Early Childhood.

Sparling, J., Meunier, K., & Campbell, F. (2019). L’approche Abecedarian, In Les Programmes de Prévention et Développement de l’Enfant. Eds. George M. Tarabulsy, Julie Poissant, Thomas Saïas, & Cécile Delaware, Quebec City: Les Presses de l’Université du Québec.

Campbell, F. A., Pan, Y., & Burchinal, M. (2019). Sustaining gains from early childhood intervention: The Abecedarian program. In A. Reynolds & J. Temple (Eds.), Sustaining early childhood learning gains: Program, school, and family influences (pp. 268-286). New York, NY: Cambridge University.

García J. L., Heckman, J. J., Ziff, A. L. (2019). Early childhood education and crime. Infant Mental Health Journal. 1–9.

Luo Y., Hétu S., Lohrenz T., Hula A., Dayan P., Ramey S. L., . . .Ramey, C. (2018). Early childhood investment impacts social decision-making four decades later. Nature Communications 9(1): Article number 4705, 1-10.

Ramey, C. T. (2018). The Abecedarian Approach to Social, Educational, and Health Disparities. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 21(4), 527–544,

Campbell F., Conti, G., Heckman, J.J., Moon, S.H., Pinto, R., Pungello, E., Pan, Y. (2014, Mar 28) Early childhood investments substantially boost adult health. Science, 343(6178):1478-85. DOI: 10.1126/1248429. PMID: 24675955.

Englund, M., White, B., Reynolds, A. J., Schweinhart, L., & Campbell, F. A. (2014).  Health outcomes of the Abecedarian, Child-Parent Center and High-Scope Perry Preschool Programs. In A. J., Reynolds, A. J. Rolnick, & J. A. Temple (Eds.).  Health and education in early childhood:  Predictors, interventions and policies. (pp.257-285), New York: Cambridge University Press.

Campbell, F. A., Pungello, E. P., Burchinal, M., Kainz, K., Pan, Y., Wasik, B. H., Sparling, J. & Ramey, C. T. (2012). Adult outcomes as a function of an early childhood educational program: an Abecedarian Project follow-up. Developmental Psychology, 48(4), 1033.

Muennig, P., Robertson, D., Johnson, G., Campbell, F., Pungello, E., & Neidell, M.  (2011)  The effect of an early education program on adult health: The Carolina Abecedarian Project randomized controlled trial.  American Journal of Public Health. 101(3), 512-516.

McMillian-Robinson, M. M., Frierson, H. T. & Campbell, F. A.  (2011).  Do gender differences exist in the academic identification in African American elementary school-age children?  Journal of Black Psychology,37(1), 78-98.

Campbell, F. A., & Ramey, C.  T.  (2010). The Abecedarian Project.  In A. J. Reynolds, A. Rolnick, M. M. Englund & J. Temple (Eds.). Cost effective programs in children’s first decade: A human capital integration. (pp. 76-95), New York: Cambridge University Press.

Reynolds, A. J., Englund, M. M., Ou, S-R, Schweinhart, L.J., & Campbell, F. A. (2010). Paths of effects of preschool participation to educational attainment at age 21: A study of the Child-Parent Centers, High/Scope Perry Preschool, and the Abecedarian Project.  In A. J. Reynolds, A. Rolnick, M. M. Englund & J. Temple (Eds.). Cost effective programs in children’s first decade: A human capital integration. (pp. 415-452), New York: Cambridge University Press.

Pungello, E. P., Kainz, K., Burchinal, M. Wasik, B. H., Sparling, J. J., Ramey, C. T., & Campbell, F. A.  (2010).  Early educational intervention, early cumulative risk, and the early home environment as predictors of young adult outcomes within a high-risk sample.  Child Development, 81(1), 410-426.

Campbell, F. A., & Taylor, K. (2009).  Early Childhood Programs That Work for Economically Disadvantaged Children in E. Essa & M. M. Burnham  (Eds.)  Informing Our Practice: Useful Research on Young Children’s Development (pp. 203-215).  Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.

Boccia, M. L., Campbell, F. A., Goldman, B. D., & Skinner, M.  (2009).  Differential recall of consent information and parental decisions about enrolling children in research.  Journal of General Psychology, 136(1), 91-108.

Campbell, F. A., Wasik, B. H., Pungello, E. P., Burchinal, M. R., Kainz, K., Barbarin, O., Sparling, J. J., & Ramey, C. T.  (2008).  Young Adult Outcomes from the Abecedarian and CARE Early Childhood Educational Interventions.  Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 23, 452-466.

Steen, R. G., & Campbell, F. A.  (2008).  The cognitive impact of systemic illness in childhood and adolescence.  Invited chapter in WISC-IV, Clinical Use and Interpretation (pp. 365-407). Burlington, MA: Elsevier Academic Press.

Campbell, F. A. & Burchinal, M.  (2008).  Early childhood interventions: The Abecedarian Project.  In P. C. Kyllonen, R. D. Roberts, & L. Stankov (Eds.).  Extending intelligence: Enhancement and new constructs (pp. 61-84).  New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates/Taylor & Francis Group.

Campbell, F. A., & Ramey, C. T.  (2007).  Carolina Abecedarian Project.  National Invitational Conference of the Early Childhood Research Collaborative.

McLaughlin, A. E., Campbell, F. C., Pungello, E. P., & Skinner, M.  (2007)  Depressive symptoms in young adults: The influences of the early home environment and early educational childcare. Child Development, 78, 746-756.

Pungello, E.P, Campbell, F.A., & Barnett, S. W. (2006). Poverty and Early Childhood Education.  /Center for Poverty, Work and Opportunity: Policy Brief Series/.

Campbell, F. A. & Pungello, E. P.  (2006).  The Abecedarian Project.  In C. R. Reynolds and E. Fletcher-Jantzen (Eds).  Encyclopedia of Special Education (3rd.ed., Vol. 1, pp-8-15).  Hoboken, NJ: Wiley

Peart, N. A., Pungello, E. P., Campbell, F. A., & Richey, T. G.  (2006). Faces of fatherhood: African American young adults view the parental role. Families in Society, 87(1), 71-83.

Campbell, F. A., Goldman, B. D., Boccia, M. L., & Skinner, M.  (2004).  The effect of format modifications and reading comprehension on recall of informed consent information by low-income parents: A comparison of print, video, and computer-based presentations.  Patient Education and Counseling. 53, 205-216.

Campbell, Frances.  [2004; Invited] “Commentary on the Relationship Between Preschool Programs and School Completion” (Invited).  In Encyclopaedia on Early Childhood Development. Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development Website,

Agre, P., Boccia, M., Campbell, F., Goldman, B., Kass, N., McCullough, L., Merz, J., Miller, S., Mintz, J., Sugarman, J., Sorenson, J., Wirshing, D. (2003).  Improving informed consent: The medium is not the message.  In Toward Improving the Informed Consent Process in Research with Humans:  Supplement to IRB Ethics and Human Research, Laura Siminoff, Issue Editor, 25(5), 11-19.

Campbell, F. A.  (2002).  High quality childcare and school readiness.  In A Generational Journey: Women Carrying on the Vision, Common Issues, United Voices. Conference Proceedings of the Third National Conference on Women, Special Preview Edition (pp.46-48).  Rockville, MD: U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

Campbell, F. A., Pungello, E. P., & Miller-Johnson, S. (2002).  The development of perceived scholastic competence and global self-worth in African American adolescents from low-income families: The roles of family factors, early educational intervention, and academic experience.  Journal of Adolescent Research, 17, 277-302.

Campbell, F. A., Ramey, C. T., Pungello, E. P., Sparling, J., & Miller-Johnson, S. (2002). Early Childhood Education: Young Adult Outcomes from the Abecedarian Project. Applied Developmental Science, 6, 42-57. This articles presents the findings concerning intellectual functioning and academic achievement of the participants at age 21 as well as findings concerning “life success” measures such as educational attainment, occupational outcomes, teen parenthood, and social adjustment.

Campbell, F. A., Pungello, E. P., Miller-Johnson, S., Burchinal, M., & Ramey, C. T. (2001). The Development of Cognitive and Academic Abilities: Growth Curves from an Early Childhood Educational Experiment.Developmental Psychology, 37, 231-242. This article provides detailed findings concerning the age-21 follow-up of the sample by examining the longitudinal trajectories of the participants’ cognitive and academic development through age 21.

Ramey, C. T., Campbell, F. A., Burchinal, M., Skinner, M. L., Gardner, D. M., & Ramey, S. L. (2000). Persistent effects of early intervention on high-risk children and their mothers. Applied Developmental Science, 4, 2-14. In addition to presenting results of child testing, this article presents findings demonstrating the benefits of the availability of high-quality, consistent child care for the mothers of children in the Abecedarian study.

Burchinal, M. R., Campbell, F. A., Bryant, D. M., Wasik, B. H., & Ramey, C. T. (1997). Early intervention and mediating processes in cognitive performance of children of low-income African American families.Child Development, 68, 935-954. In this article, the Abecedarian data are combined with a similar program called project CARE and the mechanisms by which early intervention affected cognitive performance are examined.

Campbell, F. A., & Ramey, C. T. (1995). Cognitive and school outcomes for high-risk African-American students at middle adolescence: Positive effects of early intervention. American Educational Research Journal, 32, 743-772. This article presents results of cognitive and achievement testing at age 15 as well as data concerning grade retention and assignments to special education.

Campbell, F. A. & Ramey, C. T. (1994). Effects of early intervention on intellectual and academic achievement: A follow-up study of children from low-income families. Child Development, 65, 684-698. In this article, results of cognitive and achievement testing of study participants at age 12 are presented.

Ramey, C. T. & Campbell, F. A. (1991). Poverty, early childhood education, and academic competence: The Abecedarian experiment. In A. Huston (Ed.), Children reared in poverty (pp. 190-221). New York: Cambridge University Press. This chapter describes a school-age component of the project and presents findings from cognitive testing of study participants in the primary grades of school.

Ramey, C. T., & Campbell, F. A. (1984). Preventive education for high-risk children: Cognitive consequences of the Carolina Abecedarian Project. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 88, 515-523. This article describes the child care program in detail and presents findings from cognitive testing of study participants from early infancy through age 54 months.

The Carolina Abecedarian Project